Anatomy of the Endocrine System
Doctors often treat this problem with medication. Endocrine System Disorders and Weight Loss. It contains a small amount of the cancer-fighting mineral selenium as well and is a completely delicious and nutrient-dense sweetener. Cellular metabolism, reproduction, sexual development, sugar and mineral homeostasis, heart rate, and digestion are among Continue Scrolling To Read More Below Axe on Google Plus Dr.
A Sigma Nursing answered. Q How does stress affect someone with Addison's disease? Q What is an Addisonian crisis? Because the symptoms of Addison's disease progress slowly, they are often ignored until a stressful event like an illness or an accident causes them to worsen. Sudden, severe worsening of symptoms is called an Addisonian crisis, or acute adrenal insufficiency. In most cases, the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency become serious enough that people seek medical treatment before a crisis occurs.
However, sometimes, symptoms first appear during an Addisonian crisis. This answer is based upon source information from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease. Q What are the symptoms of Addison's disease? The first symptoms of Addison's disease are usually fatigue and a feeling of weakness or dizziness when standing up after sitting for a while. People may also develop dark patches of skin that look like a sun tan but can form anywhere on the body, not just where the skin is exposed to sunlight.
Other symptoms include weight loss, nausea, loss of appetite, salt cravings, and dehydration. Sometimes, the symptoms are noticeable only when a person is under stress. Q How is an Addisonian crisis diagnosed? In patients suspected of having an Addisonian crisis, health professionals must immediately begin treatment with injections of salt, glucose-containing fluids, and glucocorticoid hormones. Although a reliable diagnosis may not be possible during crisis treatment, the measurement of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH and cortisol during the crisis -- before glucocorticoids are given -- is enough to make a preliminary diagnosis.
Low blood sodium, low blood glucose, and high blood potassium are also usually present at the time of an adrenal crisis. Once the crisis is controlled, the ACTH stimulation test can be performed to obtain the specific diagnosis.
More complex laboratory tests are sometimes used if the diagnosis remains unclear. Once a diagnosis of Addison's disease is made, radiologic studies such as an X-ray or ultrasound of the abdomen may be taken to see if the adrenals have any signs of calcium deposits. Calcium deposits may indicate bleeding in the adrenal gland or TB, for which a tuberculin skin test also may be used. Blood tests can detect antibodies associated with autoimmune Addison's disease.
If secondary adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, doctors may use different imaging tools to reveal the size and shape of the pituitary gland. The most common is a computed tomography CT scan, which produces a series of X-ray pictures giving cross-sectional images. A magnetic resonance imaging MRI scan may also be used to produce a 3-D image of this region.
The function of the pituitary and its ability to produce other hormones are also assessed with blood tests. Q How is Addison's disease diagnosed? Addison's disease can actually be difficult to diagnose. Many times, the symptoms aren't too noticeable, and there isn't any one test that can confirm Addison's disease in every case. Instead, doctors will often do a combination of blood tests to measure the levels of sodium and potassium in the blood.
They can also measure the levels of cortisol and corticotropin, which are two hormones affected by Addison's disease. If necessary, doctors may do other blood and urine tests to confirm the diagnosis.
Q How does Addison's disease affect children differently than adults? Addison's disease can affect people of all ages, but the most commonly affected age group is adults 30 to 50 years old. Though the disease affects most people similarly, there are a few differences between the way it affects adults and the way it affects children.
The cause of Addison's disease is one of those major differences. Every other cell depends on the thyroid to manage its metabolism. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus both control the thyroid. The thyroid responds to this chain of events by producing more hormones.
To learn more, read our article about how the thyroid works. It is comprised of two halves, known as lobes, which are attached by a band of thyroid tissue called the isthmus.
During development, the thyroid is actually located in the back of the tongue and has to migrate to the front of the neck before birth. There are rare instances when the thyroid migrates too far or too little. There are even cases when the thyroid remains in the back of the tongue—this is known as lingual thyroid. The two main hormones the thyroid produces and releases are T3 tri-iodothyronine and T4 thyroxine. To a lesser extent, the thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps control blood calcium levels.
There are many diseases and disorders associated with the thyroid. They can develop at any age and can result from a variety of causes—injury, disease, or dietary deficiency, for instance. But in most cases, they can be traced to the following problems:.
Below are some of the most common thyroid disorders. To learn more, read our article about common thyroid problems. You May Also Like:. How Stress Affects Your Thyroid. Diabetes Guide for Older People The risk for diabetes increases with age, making diabetes common in older adults.
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